Radio Nizkor

Audio Documents
International Criminal Tribunals


International Criminal Court - ICC
International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda


International Criminal Court - ICC/CPI

Fichero AudioICC/CPI - 15th Session of the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the ICC, marked by the withdrawal of South Africa, Burundi and The Gambia. Radio Nizkor, 30Nov16

The fifteenth session of the Assembly of States Parties (ASP) to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court was held from 16 to 24 November 2016 at The Hague, the Netherlands.

This session was marked by the recent withdrawals from the ICC announced by South Africa and Burundi in October 2016 and by The Gambia in November 2016.

Radio Nizkor attended the 15th session of the ASP and recorded several country statements delivered at the General Debate. We are making some of these statements available as a sample of the ongoing debate at the ICC.

On 19 October 2016, the Minister of International Relations and Cooperation of South Africa, Ms Maite Nkoana-Mashabane, handed the United Nations Secretary-General South Africa's intention to withdraw, a move that has been welcomed by the Chairperson of the Portfolio Committee on International Relations and Cooperation of the Parliament of South Africa. Burundi deposited its formal withdrawal before the Secretary-General of the United Nations on 27 October 2016, and this action shall take effect for Burundi on 27 October 2017. The representatives of both countries explained to the ASP the reasons behind these withdrawals. Their statements are included among the audio files presented below.

Universality of the Rome Statute and cooperation between states and the Court were also discussed. The activation of the jurisdiction of the Court over the crime of aggression, the definition of which was incorporated into the Rome Statute through the so-called "Kampala amendments" in 2010, was an important issue of debate. The ICC will be able to take action against the crime of aggression once 30 States Parties have ratified the amendments and once States Parties have decided by a 2/3 majority to activate the Court's jurisdiction, which they may do only after 1 January 2017. Having attained in 2016 the minimum number of 30 ratifications required, the ASP should activate the jurisdiction of the ICC over this crime next year. However, the United Kingdom and France, both States Parties to the ICC, but not to the Kampala amendments, made it clear during this session that they are against activation...

Please note that the audio statements are listed in chronological order (although not consecutive) of presentation. You can listen to the country statements by clicking on the icon of the audio format you wish to reproduce, either Real Media or Mp3:

Country File name RM Mp3 Duration Language
Statement by South Africa at the 15th Session of the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the ICC zaf15asp REAL PLAYER MP3 00:10:39 ENG
Statement by Liechtenstein at the 15th Session of the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the ICC lie15asp REAL PLAYER MP3 00:08:47 ENG
Statement by Botswana at the 15th Session of the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the ICC bwa15asp REAL PLAYER MP3 00:09:47 ENG
Statement by the Democratic Republic of Congo at the 15th Session of the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the ICC cod15asp REAL PLAYER MP3 00:06:09 ENG
Statement by Bangladesh at the 15th Session of the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the ICC bgd15asp REAL PLAYER MP3 00:08:12 ENG
Statement by Slovakia on behalf of the European Union at the 15th Session of the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the ICC svk15asp REAL PLAYER MP3 00:10:34 ENG
Statement by Germany at the 15th Session of the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the ICC deu15asp REAL PLAYER MP3 00:07:39 ENG
Statement by France at the 15th Session of the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the ICC fra15asp REAL PLAYER MP3 00:07:42 ENG
Statement by Ecuador at the 15th Session of the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the ICC ecu15asp REAL PLAYER MP3 00:10:17 ENG
Statement by Andorra at the 15th Session of the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the ICC and15asp REAL PLAYER MP3 00:08:07 FRA
Statement by Japan at the 15th Session of the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the ICC jpn15asp REAL PLAYER MP3 00:10:04 ENG
Statement by Burundi at the 15th Session of the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the ICC bdi15asp REAL PLAYER MP3 00:23:36 FRA
Statement by Namibia at the 15th Session of the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the ICC nam15asp REAL PLAYER MP3 00:08:49 ENG



Fichero AudioONU/CPI - La cuestión de la agresión militar. (Por Benjamin B. Ferencz). Radio Nizkor, 06ene12


"Ha llovido mucho desde Nuremberg y aún queda mucho camino por recorrer.

La esperanza es el motor que impulsa el empeño humano. Después de que 20 millones de personas perdieran la vida en la Primera Guerra Mundial, los diplomáticos de la Liga de Naciones reconocieron la necesidad de borrar la guerra como instrumento de política nacional. Recomendaron que, en el futuro, las guerras de agresión debieran ser castigadas como crimen internacional, a lo que las potencias respondieron: "Todavía no es el momento oportuno". 50 millones más de personas perecieron en la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Como respuesta, se creó en Nuremberg un Tribunal Militar Internacional para juzgar a los dirigentes alemanes responsables de crímenes contra la paz (agresión), crímenes contra la humanidad y crímenes de guerra. [...]

En diciembre de 1946 las Naciones Unidas confirmaron los principios de Nuremberg y sus sentencias. Se instruyó a la Comisión [de Derecho Internacional] para que preparara un proyecto de Código de Crímenes contra la Paz y la Seguridad de la Humanidad, incluido el crimen de agresión, y que fuera diseñando una jurisdicción penal internacional permanente para el enjuiciamiento de los perpetradores. [...]

El mandato de 1946 de definir el crimen de agresión fue finalmente aprobado por la Asamblea General de la ONU el 14 de diciembre de 1974 como Resolución 3314. En aras del consenso, se insertaron cláusulas de última hora en el sentido de que la definición no sería más que una guía no vinculante para el Consejo de Seguridad, órgano al que se le otorgó una amplia discrecionalidad a la hora de determinar si un acto de agresión se había producido realmente. [...]

En 1996, los 34 miembros de la Comisión de Derecho Internacional completaron la redacción de un código de crímenes internacionales en el que se favorecía la definición original de Nuremberg. Ciento ochenta y cinco naciones... conformaron comités en el seno de las Naciones Unidas para pergeñar un tribunal penal internacional permanente. Cientos de cuestiones abiertas permanecieron pendientes de solución al cabo de una conferencia final de plenipotenciarios que duró 4 semanas y que se celebró en Roma en el verano de 1998. En un clímax inolvidable, cuando ya el tiempo oficial se había agotado, el Presidente Philippe Kirsch anunció la aprobación del Estatuto de Roma de la Corte Penal Internacional (CPI). [...]

Se llegó a un compromiso de última hora según el cual la agresión entraría en la lista de los cuatro crímenes principales, si bien la CPI no podría ejercer su jurisdicción sobre este crimen hasta que no se reunieran algunas condiciones específicas. Tendría que llegarse a una definición aceptable, así como a una confirmación clara de que se respetarían las disposiciones de la Carta de las Naciones Unidas (esto es, las prerrogativas del Consejo de Seguridad)... Se establecieron Grupos de Trabajo Especiales de la Asamblea de Estados Partes (AEP) para satisfacer los requisitos de activación de la jurisdicción de la CPI sobre este "supremo crimen internacional". [...]

Se avanzó en una definición revisada, pero el acuerdo sobre el papel del Consejo de Seguridad no se vislumbraba en el horizonte. Cuando la Conferencia de Revisión [del Estatuto de Roma] comenzó en Kampala, Uganda, el 31 de mayo de 2010, una definición mejorada aclaró la distinción entre el crimen de agresión cometido por una persona... y el acto de agresión cometido por un estado... Se añadieron nuevos obstáculos al requerir el acuerdo de 30 Estados Partes y la aprobación por al menos dos tercios de todas las partes para que una enmienda resulte vinculante. Nadie podría ser juzgado por agresión hasta 2017 como pronto, año en que la AEP someterá esta cuestión a ulterior consideración.

El Estatuto de Roma es un contrato voluntario en forma de tratado al que los estados prestan su consentimiento. Estos estados no están obligados a vincularse por algo que no hayan aceptado. Como garantía hacía las naciones que no querían vincularse, las enmiendas adoptadas en Kampala estipulan que los Estados Partes pueden optar previamente por su no sujeción al crimen de agresión. [...]

Así que, ¿qué podemos esperar del futuro?... Permitir que los agresores sigan inmunes frente a la acción de la CPI no ejerce efecto disuasorio alguno sobre las guerras ilegales, sino que más bien las favorece.... El escepticismo puede ser comprensible, pero no justifica la inacción. Los obstáculos inevitables y temporales no debieran oscurecer el progreso y la necesidad de cambio..."

Benjamin B. Ferencz fue Fiscal en los juicios de Nuremberg y es un infatigable defensor del estado de derecho internacional y del establecimiento de una corte penal internacional.

File nameReal Media format Mp3 format Duration Language
agresion Haz click en el icono REAL PLAYER Haz click en el icono MP3 00:14:42 ESL/SPA



Fichero AudioICC/UN - "What of Military Aggression?". (Article by Benjamin B. Ferencz). Radio Nizkor, 05Jan12


"We have come a long way from Nuremberg, and have miles to go before we sleep

Hope is the engine that drives human endeavour. After some 20 million people were killed in WW1, League of Nations diplomats recognized the need to eliminate war as an instrument of national policy. They advised that future wars of aggression should be punished as an international crime. The common response from powerful states was: 'The time is not yet ripe.' An additional 50 million victims perished in WW2. In response, an International Military Tribunal was set up in Nuremberg to try German leaders responsible for crimes against peace (aggression), crimes against humanity, and war crimes. [...]

In December 1946, the UN affirmed the Nuremberg principles and judgement. Committees were directed to draft a Code of Crimes Against the Peace and Security of Mankind, including the crime of aggression, and to plan for a permanent international criminal jurisdiction to try offenders. [...]

The UN, of course, could not exist in a political vacuum... The veto-wielding powers in the Council proved unable 'to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war.' [...]

The 1946 mandate to define the crime of aggression was finally approved by the UN General Assembly, on December 14th, 1974, as Resolution 3314. To achieve consensus, last-minute clauses were inserted to the effect that the definition was only a non-binding guide to the Security Council, which was given wide latitude to determine whether an act of aggression had indeed occurred. [...]

A code of international crimes was completed in 1996 by the 34-member International Law Commission that favoured the original Nuremberg definition. One hundred eighty-five nations... formed UN committees to fashion a permanent international criminal tribunal. Hundreds of open questions were left to be resolved during a final four-week conference of plenipotentiaries in Rome in the summer of 1998. In an unforgettable climax, after the official time had expired, Chairman Philippe Kirsch announced that the Rome Statute for an International Criminal Court (ICC) had been approved. [...]

A last-minute compromise was accepted, where aggression would be listed as one of the four core crimes, although the ICC could not exercise its jurisdiction over that crime until and unless certain specified conditions could be met. There would have to be an acceptable definition, as well as clear confirmation that UN Charter provisions (meaning Security Council rights) would be respected. The Rome Statute... went into effect on July 1st, 2002. Special Working Groups of the Assembly of State Parties (ASP) set out to meet the requirements for activating ICC jurisdiction over 'the supreme international crime.'

A Special Working Group laboured long and mightily to meet the preconditions laid down at Rome. Progress was made on a revised definition, but agreement on the role of the Security Council was nowhere in sight. When the Review Conference began in Kampala, Uganda, on May 31st, 2010, an improved definition clarified the distinction between the crime of aggression by an individual... and an act of aggression by a state... New hurdles were added by requiring agreement by 30 states, and approval by at least two-thirds of all parties before an amendment would become binding. No one could be tried for aggression until 2017 at the earliest - at which time the ASP would consider the matter further.

The Rome Statute is a voluntary contract in treaty form entered into by consenting states. These states were not obliged to be bound by anything that they did not accept. To reassure nations that did not want to be bound, the amendments adopted in Kampala stipulated that State Parties can elect in advance not to be subject to aggression charges. [...]

So what to expect for the future?... Allowing aggressors to remain immune from prosecution by the ICC surely does not deter illegal war-making, but rather encourages it... To be sure, the long historical record of glorifying war causes many doubts about the utility of trying to alter the way that people think about such vital issues. Skepticism may be understandable, but it does not justify inaction. Unavoidable temporary shortcomings should not obscure progress and the need for change..."

Benjamin B. Ferencz was a prosecutor at the Nuremberg war crimes trials, and has been a lifetime advocate of the international rule of law and the establishment of an International Criminal Court.

File nameReal Media format Mp3 format Duration Language
aggression Click on icon REAL PLAYER Click on icon MP3 00:11:52 ENG



Fichero AudioIcc/Cpi - ICC Rome Statute amended at Review Conference in Kampala so as to include a definition of the crime of aggression. (Assembly of States Parties to the ICC; Prof. Willian Schabas). Radio Nizkor with the collaboration of the International Human Rights Law Clinic at the American University Washington College of Law, 05Feb11


On 11 June 2010, the Review Conference of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC) concluded in Kampala, Uganda, after meeting for two weeks, from 31 May to 11 June.

The Review Conference consisted of a meeting of the States Parties to the Rome Statute primarily to consider amendments to the Statute. It toke place pursuant to a requirement under article 123(1) of the Rome Statute that a conference to consider amendments be held seven years after the coming into force of the Statute.

The Review Conference was conducted on a two-track basis, namely: the amendment track and the stocktaking track.

Under the amendment track, States Parties considered limited and specific amendments to the Rome Statute particularly the inclusion of the definition and trigger mechanism for the crime of aggression.

Under the stocktaking track, States Parties, civil society organizations and other stakeholders engaged debate and discussions covering four topics, namely: the impact of the Rome Statute system on victims and affected communities, cooperation, complementarity, and peace and justice.

The Conference adopted a resolution by which it amended the Rome Statute so as to include a definition of the crime of aggression and the conditions under which the Court could exercise jurisdiction with respect to the crime.

"[T]he Conference approved the definition of aggression that emerged as a result of the work of the Special Working Group on the Crime of Aggression, together with two understandings (understandings 6 and 7) and Elements of Crimes.

The definition is comprised of two paragraphs, the first establishing that the crime of aggression 'means the planning, preparation, initiation or execution, by a person in a position effectively to exercise control over or to direct the political or military action of a State, of an act of aggression which, by its character, gravity and scale, constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations', the second providing a detailed seven-paragraph enumeration of acts that qualify as an act of aggression..."

File nameReal Media format Mp3 format Duration Language
kampala Click on icon REAL PLAYER Click on icon MP3 00:09:36 ENG



Fichero AudioIcc/Cpi - President Bush signs anti-ICC Nethercutt Amendment and sanctions countries that support the ICC. (American Non-Governmental Organizations Coalition for the ICC; Citizens for Global Solutions). Radio Nizkor with the collaboration of the Schell Center for International Human Rights at Yale Law School, 20Dec04


On December 7, 2004 President Bush signed into effect the so-called Nethercutt Amendment, which suspends Economic Support Fund assistance to States Parties to the International Criminal Court or ICC who have not signed bilateral immunity agreements with the US.

What the Nethercutt Amendment does is exempt all U.S. nationals and contractors with the US from accountability for widespread and systematic war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide committed on the territory of a signatory country.

On December 9th., 2004 the Dutch European Union Presidency made public its Declaration on the Nethercutt amendment, regretting its adoption...

The US has deployed its anti-ICC efforts during previous congressional sessions. The House and the Senate had approved on July 2002 another piece of legislation prohibiting US cooperation with the International Criminal Court: the American Servicemembers' Protection Act or ASPA...

The Bush Administration has also been conducting a vigorous campaign of trying to conclude bilateral international agreements that will remove US nationals from the reach of the Court. These are the so-called "Article 98 bilateral agreements"...

Also recently, the US has deployed its anti-ICC efforts before the UN General Assembly, where the US attempted to have the ICC taken off the UN General Assembly agenda. However, on November 19th, 2004, the GA Sixth Committee (Legal) unanimously passed its resolution (and corrigendum) on the ICC without a vote... When the GA Plenary adopted the resolution on December 2, 2004, the US delegation dissociated itself from consensus on the resolution.

File nameReal Media format Mp3 format Duration Language
iccus Click on icon REAL PLAYER Click on icon MP3 00:19:20 ENG



Fichero AudioIcc/Cpi - Update on the works of the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the ICC. Radio Nizkor with the collaboration of the Orville H. Schell, Jr. Center for International Human Rights at Yale Law School, 17sep04


The Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court has just held its third session, from 6 to 10 September 2004, in The Hague, the Netherlands, where the Court is based.

The Assembly of States Parties is the management oversight and legislative body of the International Criminal Court. It is composed of representatives of the States that have ratified and acceded to the Rome Statute.

During its 3rd. session, among other decisions, the Assembly adopted a negotiated Draft Relationship Agreement between the Court and the United Nations and elected Ms. Fatou Bensouda, of Gambia, to the office of Deputy Prosecutor for Prosecutions. It also adopted the Court's 2005 programme budget and a Contingency Fund was established in the amount of 10,000,000 Euros.

Given the ICC's role in ensuring that the gravest international crimes do not go unpunished, we think it is important to be aware of the key decisions which will affect its adequate functioning.

The Real Media format of this file permits the viewing of documents which contain context analysis in synchronization with audio. This is possible through the use of the Real One Player program. More Information.

File nameReal Media format Mp3 format Duration Language
iccasp Click on icon REAL PLAYER Click on icon MP3 00:15:22 ENG


ICTY and ICTR

Fichero AudioICTY - Comentario sobre la sentencia Krajisnik de 27sep06: condena por crímenes contra la humanidad y participación en empresa criminal conjunta. Radio Nizkor, 18oct06


El 27 sep06, la Cámara de Primera Instancia (I) del Tribunal Penal Internacional para la ex Yugoslavia condenó a Momcilo Krajisnik, ex miembro de la dirigencia serbio bosnia, a 27 años de prisión al hallarle culpable de los siguientes cargos:

  • Cargo 3, persecución como crimen contra la humanidad
  • Cargo 4, exterminio como crimen contra la humanidad
  • Cargo 5, asesinato como crimen contra la humanidad
  • Cargo 7, deportación como crimen contra la humanidad
  • Cargo 8, traslado forzoso como acto inhumano como crimen contra la humanidad

La misma sentencia absolvió al acusado de los Cargos 1 y 2 del acta de acusación, es decir, de genocidio y complicidad en la comisión de genocidio. También le absolvió de un cargo de asesinato en violación de las leyes y costumbres de la guerra.

Se trata de un claro caso de lo que se ha dado en llamar "limpieza étnica", pero en donde el Tribunal, aún así, no pudo dar por probados todos los elementos indispensables para pronunciar una sentencia por genocidio, particularmente el requisito denominado "mens rea", que es la intencionalidad específica que se ha de demostrar en el perpetrador. Este caso es un claro ejemplo de las dificultades técnicas y de prueba que ha de enfrentar un tribunal a la hora de analizar este tipo de crímenes graves bajo la figura de genocidio, difícil de probar...

Al abordar la cuestión de la responsabilidad penal del Sr. Krajisnik por los crímenes enunciados, el Tribunal estima que el modo más apropiado para establecer la responsabilidad es el de la empresa criminal conjunta.

El Tribunal estableció la existencia de una empresa criminal conjunta, que incluye a Radovan Karadzic y otros dirigentes serbo-bosnios, y que tendría por finalidad la "recomposición étnica de los territorios fijados como objetivo por la dirección serbo-bosnia a través de la reducción drástica de la proporción de musulmanes bosnios y croatas bosnios mediante su expulsión". La Cámara sentenció que aunque los crímenes iniciales de la empresa criminal conjunta se limitaban a la deportación y el traslado forzoso, las pruebas permiten concluir que los medios criminales de la empresa crecieron muy pronto y pasaron a incluir también otros crímenes, como la persecución, el asesinato y el exterminio, los cuales, por su carácter sistemático son considerados crímenes contra la humanidad.

El Tribunal concluye que el Sr. Krajisnik es culpable de los crímenes más arriba mencionados a través de su participación en una empresa criminal conjunta.

Este programa consta de dos partes: en la primera se exponen las conclusiones del Tribunal, principalmente en lo que hace a la absolución por genocidio y la articulación de la responsabilidad por comisión de crímenes contra la humanidad a través de la participación del acusado en una empresa criminal conjunta.

La segunda parte, a partir del minuto 19:45 aproximadamente, recoge el comentario de Gregorio Dionis, Director del Equipo nizkor, en que expone la relevancia de esta sentencia y explica en detalle el concepto de Empresa Criminal Conjunta y las dificultades en la utilización de la figura del genocidio en la lucha contra la impunidad.

File nameReal Media format Mp3 format Duration Language
icty Click on icon REAL PLAYER Click on icon MP3 00:38:41 ESL/ESP



Fichero AudioRwa - Le TPIR et les tribunaux gacaca très critiqués pour son incapacité à combattre l'impunité au Rwanda. (Inter Press Service News Agency). Radio Nizkor, 25juil06


" Le Tribunal pénal international pour le Rwanda (TPIR) basé à Arusha, dans le nord de la Tanzanie, devra achever ses travaux en 2008, selon la mission que lui ont confiée les Nations Unies de juger les principaux responsables du génocide rwandais de 1994...

Timoty Gallimore, porte-parole du TPIR, estime qu'il n'existe pas d'entrave majeure au succès de la stratégie d'achèvement de la mission de ce tribunal dont le mandat prendra fin dans un an et demi. "Le succès de la stratégie d'achèvement dépend principalement de deux facteurs : l'arrestation des fugitifs et la capacité des juridictions nationales à se saisir des affaires impliquant des personnes (présumées coupables) de rang intermédiaire ou subalterne... "

" Il est certes malaisé de formuler une stratégie d'achèvement des travaux d'un tribunal, alors que plusieurs procès ont fait l'objet d'un appel", observe, pour sa part, Everard O'Donnell, chef de la section de soutien aux chambres des juges du TPIR. Depuis le démarrage des travaux du TPIR en mai 1996, seuls les procès de 26 personnes accusées ont été menés à terme...

D'autre part, "[L]es tribunaux semi-traditionnels au Rwanda, les 'gacaca', créés en 2002 comme une alternative rapide pour juger des milliers de génocidaires présumés, suscitent une polémique dans les milieux juridiques...

Les tribunaux populaires rwandais, inspirés des anciennes assemblées au cours desquelles les sages du village réglaient des différends, assis sur le gazon ('gacaca', en langue nationale kinyarwanda), sont à mi-chemin entre la justice traditionnelle et la justice conventionnelle.

Selon des statistiques officielles contenues dans un rapport publié le 30 juin dernier sur les 'gacaca', ces tribunaux, dans leur première phase pilote, n'ont jugé jusqu'ici que 6.267 personnes sur 63.447 génocidaires présumés. L'étude a été réalisée à Kigali, la capitale du Rwanda, par l'instance nationale chargée des juridictions gacaca... "

File nameReal Media format Mp3 format Duration Language
rwanda1 Click on icon REAL PLAYER Click on icon MP3 00:13:57 FRA



Fichero AudioIcty/Ictr - Un Security Council asks the international tribunals to conclude their work. Radio Nizkor with UN press releases, 27Mar04

File name Real Player format Mp3 format Time (minutes) Language
ictyinfo2 Click on icon REAL PLAYER Click on icon MP3 00:02:11 ENG


Fichero AudioIcty/Ictr - El Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU pide a los tribunales ad-hoc que vayan concluyendo sus investigaciones.
Radio Nizkor con comunicados de prensa de las Naciones Unidas, 29mar04

File name Real Player format Mp3 format Time (minutes) Language
ictyinfo1 Haz click aquí REAL PLAYER Haz click aquí MP3 00:03:17 ESL/SPA


Tecnical Data:

These audio documents have been posted in Real Audio and MP3 formats, their quality being equivalent to that of a CD-Rom.

If your connection speed does not allow you to listen to these files, we can send it to you by post in a CD-Rom. In this case, the production and shipment costs will be at your charge.

In order to do so, you may e-mail us at Editor Radio Nizkor.


You may find further information on the International Criminal Court at the website of Equipo Nizkor


On-Line Donations

Equipo Nizkor | Proyecto Desaparecidos | Derechos HR

Radio Nizkor Indice - Busca Enlaces de Derechos Humanos Contactanos